Nevada Mortgage Laws About Deficiency Judgment
NEVADA MORTGAGE LAWS:
In this session, we are going to discuss in somewhat greater details the Nevada Mortgage Laws and how to handle the looming foreclosure crisis which has state of Nevada in the highest ranks in USA.
NRS 40.430 Action for recovery of debt secured by mortgage or other lien; “action” defined.
Nevada has only One Action Law for the recovery of any debt, or for the enforcement of any right secured by a mortgage or other lien upon real estate. That action must be in accordance with the provisions of NRS 40.430 to 40.459, inclusive. In that action, the judgment must be rendered for the amount found due the plaintiff, and the court, by its decree or judgment, may direct a sale of the encumbered property, or such part thereof as is necessary, and apply the proceeds of the sale as provided in NRS 40.462.
What is One Action Rule of Nevada?
This section must be construed to permit a secured creditor to realize upon the collateral for a debt or other obligation agreed upon by the debtor and creditor when the debt or other obligation was incurred. A sale directed by the court pursuant to subsection 1 must be conducted in the same manner as the sale of real property upon execution, by the sheriff of the county in which the encumbered land is situated, and if the encumbered land is situated in two or more counties, the court shall direct the sheriff of one of the counties to conduct the sale with like proceedings and effect as if the whole of the encumbered land were situated in that county.
What this One Action Rule Does Not Include?
(a) To appoint a receiver for, or obtain possession of, any real or personal collateral for the debt or as provided in NRS 32.015.
(b) To enforce a security interest in, or the assignment of, any rents, issues, profits or other income of any real or personal property.
(c) To enforce a mortgage or other lien upon any real or personal collateral located outside of the State which does not, except as required under the laws of that jurisdiction, result in a personal judgment against the debtor.
(d) For the recovery of damages arising from the commission of a tort, including a recovery under NRS 40.750, or the recovery of any declaratory or equitable relief.
(e) For the exercise of a power of sale pursuant to NRS 107.080.
(f) For the exercise of any right or remedy authorized by chapter 104 of NRS or by the Uniform Commercial Code as enacted in any other state.
(g) For the exercise of any right to set off, or to enforce a pledge in, a deposit account pursuant to a written agreement or pledge.
(h) To draw under a letter of credit.
(i) To enforce an agreement with a surety or guarantor if enforcement of the mortgage or other lien has been automatically stayed pursuant to 11 U.S.C. § 362 or pursuant to an order of a federal bankruptcy court under any other provision of the United States Bankruptcy Code for not less than 120 days following the mailing of notice to the surety or guarantor pursuant to subsection 1 of NRS 107.095.
(j) To collect any debt, or enforce any right, secured by a mortgage or other lien on real property if the property has been sold to a person other than the creditor to satisfy, in whole or in part, a debt or other right secured by a senior mortgage or other senior lien on the property.
(k) Relating to any proceeding in bankruptcy, including the filing of a proof of claim, seeking relief from an automatic stay and any other action to determine the amount or validity of a debt.
(l) For filing a claim pursuant to chapter 147 of NRS or to enforce such a claim which has been disallowed.
(m) Which does not include the collection of the debt or realization of the collateral securing the debt.
(n) Pursuant to NRS 40.507 or 40.508.
(o) Which is exempted from the provisions of this section by specific statute.
(p) To recover costs of suit, costs and expenses of sale, attorneys’ fees and other incidental relief in connection with any action authorized by this subsection.
How Mortgage is Defined Under Nevada Laws?
NRS 40.433 “Mortgage or other lien” defined. A “mortgage or other lien” includes a deed of trust, but does not include a lien which arises pursuant to chapter 108 of NRS, pursuant to an assessment under chapter 116, 117, 119A or 278A of NRS or pursuant to a judgment or decree of any court of competent jurisdiction.
The Judicial Proceedings Are An Affirmative Defense
1. The commencement of or participation in a judicial proceeding in violation of NRS 40.430 does not forfeit any of the rights of a secured creditor in any real or personal collateral, or impair the ability of the creditor to realize upon any real or personal collateral, if the judicial proceeding is:
(a) Stayed or dismissed before entry of a final judgment; or
(b) Converted into an action which does not violate NRS 40.430.
2. If the provisions of NRS 40.430 are timely interposed as an affirmative defense in such a judicial proceeding, upon the motion of any party to the proceeding the court shall:
(a) Dismiss the proceeding without prejudice; or
(b) Grant a continuance and order the amendment of the pleadings to convert the proceeding into an action which does not violate NRS 40.430.
3. The failure to interpose, before the entry of a final judgment, the provisions of NRS 40.430 as an affirmative defense in such a proceeding waives the defense in that proceeding. Such a failure does not affect the validity of the final judgment, but entry of the final judgment releases and discharges the mortgage or other lien.
4. As used in this section, “final judgment” means a judgment which imposes personal liability on the debtor for the payment of money and which may be appealed under the Nevada Rules of Appellate Procedure.
How Surplus Money is Distributed?
NRS 40.440 Disposition of surplus money. If there is surplus money remaining after payment of the amount due on the mortgage or other lien, with costs, the court may cause the same to be paid to the person entitled to it pursuant to NRS 40.462, and in the meantime may direct it to be deposited in court.
FORECLOSURE SALES AND DEFICIENCY JUDGMENTS
I have been asked about deficiency judgment many times. In Nevada, the time period for filing a deficiency judgment by your lender is only 6 months. However, they can file this deficiency judgment and can enforce it later against you. I have been asked frequently about the laws of deficiency judgment in Nevada. This is a concise summary of all of the laws of deficiency judgment. Please read carefully and seek the help of a licensed attorney before doing anything or filing any action.
What is an Indebteness?
NRS 40.451 “Indebtedness” defined. “indebtedness” means the principal balance of the obligation secured by a mortgage or other lien on real property, together with all interest accrued and unpaid prior to the time of foreclosure sale, all costs and fees of such a sale, all advances made with respect to the property by the beneficiary, and all other amounts secured by the mortgage or other lien on the real property in favor of the person seeking the deficiency judgment. Such amount constituting a lien is limited to the amount of the consideration paid by the lienholder.
NRS 40.453 Waiver of rights in documents relating to sale of real property against public policy and unenforceable; exception. Except as otherwise provided in NRS 40.495:
1. It is hereby declared by the Legislature to be against public policy for any document relating to the sale of real property to contain any provision whereby a mortgagor or the grantor of a deed of trust or a guarantor or surety of the indebtedness secured thereby, waives any right secured to him by the laws of this state.
2. A court shall not enforce any such provision.
How Deficiency Judgment is Awarded?
NRS 40.455 Deficiency judgment: Award to judgment creditor or beneficiary of deed of trust.
1. Upon application of the judgment creditor or the beneficiary of the deed of trust within 6 months after the date of the foreclosure sale or the trustee’s sale held pursuant to NRS 107.080, respectively, and after the required hearing, the court shall award a deficiency judgment to the judgment creditor or the beneficiary of the deed of trust if it appears from the sheriff’s return or the recital of consideration in the trustee’s deed that there is a deficiency of the proceeds of the sale and a balance remaining due to the judgment creditor or the beneficiary of the deed of trust, respectively.
2. If the indebtedness is secured by more than one parcel of real property, more than one interest in the real property or more than one mortgage or deed of trust, the 6-month period begins to run after the date of the foreclosure sale or trustee’s sale of the last parcel or other interest in the real property securing the indebtedness, but in no event may the application be filed more than 2 years after the initial foreclosure sale or trustee’s sale.
What is the Procedure for a Hearing of a Deficiency Judgment in Nevada? NRS 40.457 1. Before awarding a deficiency judgment under NRS 40.455, the court shall hold a hearing and shall take evidence presented by either party concerning the fair market value of the property sold as of the date of foreclosure sale or trustee’s sale. Notice of such hearing shall be served upon all defendants who have appeared in the action and against whom a deficiency judgment is sought, or upon their attorneys of record, at least 15 days before the date set for hearing.
2. Upon application of any party made at least 10 days before the date set for the hearing the court shall, or upon its own motion the court may, appoint an appraiser to appraise the property sold as of the date of foreclosure sale or trustee’s sale. Such appraiser shall file with the clerk his appraisal, which is admissible in evidence. The appraiser shall take an oath that he has truly, honestly and impartially appraised the property to the best of his knowledge and ability. Any appraiser so appointed may be called and examined as a witness by any party or by the court. The court shall fix a reasonable compensation for the appraiser, but his fee shall not exceed similar fees for similar services in the county where the encumbered land is situated.
NRS 40.459 Limitations on amount of money judgment. After the hearing, the court shall award a money judgment against the debtor, guarantor or surety who is personally liable for the debt. The court shall not render judgment for more than:
1. The amount by which the amount of the indebtedness which was secured exceeds the fair market value of the property sold at the time of the sale, with interest from the date of the sale; or
2. The amount which is the difference between the amount for which the property was actually sold and the amount of the indebtedness which was secured, with interest from the date of sale, whichever is the lesser amount.
NRS 40.462 Distribution of proceeds of foreclosure sale.
1. Except as otherwise provided by specific statute, this section governs the distribution of the proceeds of a foreclosure sale. The provisions of NRS 40.455, 40.457 and 40.459 do not affect the right to receive those proceeds, which vests at the time of the foreclosure sale. The purchase of any interest in the property at the foreclosure sale, and the subsequent disposition of the property, does not affect the right of the purchaser to the distribution of proceeds pursuant to paragraph (c) of subsection 2 of this section, or to obtain a deficiency judgment pursuant to NRS 40.455, 40.457 and 40.459.
2. The proceeds of a foreclosure sale must be distributed in the following order of priority:
(a) Payment of the reasonable expenses of taking possession, maintaining, protecting and leasing the property, the costs and fees of the foreclosure sale, including reasonable trustee’s fees, applicable taxes and the cost of title insurance and, to the extent provided in the legally enforceable terms of the mortgage or lien, any advances, reasonable attorney’s fees and other legal expenses incurred by the foreclosing creditor and the person conducting the foreclosure sale.
(b) Satisfaction of the obligation being enforced by the foreclosure sale.
(c) Satisfaction of obligations secured by any junior mortgages or liens on the property, in their order of priority.
(d) Payment of the balance of the proceeds, if any, to the debtor or his successor in interest.
? If there are conflicting claims to any portion of the proceeds, the person conducting the foreclosure sale is not required to distribute that portion of the proceeds until the validity of the conflicting claims is determined through interpleader or otherwise to his satisfaction.
3. A person who claims a right to receive the proceeds of a foreclosure sale pursuant to paragraph (c) of subsection 2 must, upon the written demand of the person conducting the foreclosure sale, provide:
(a) Proof of the obligation upon which he claims his right to the proceeds; and
(b) Proof of his interest in the mortgage or lien, unless that proof appears in the official records of a county in which the property is located.
? Such a demand is effective upon personal delivery or upon mailing by registered or certified mail, return receipt requested, to the last known address of the claimant. Failure of a claimant to provide the required proof within 15 days after the effective date of the demand waives his right to receive those proceeds.
4. As used in this section, “foreclosure sale” means the sale of real property to enforce an obligation secured by a mortgage or lien on the property, including the exercise of a trustee’s power of sale pursuant to NRS 107.080.
NRS 40.463 Agreement for assistance in recovering proceeds of foreclosure sale due to debtor or successor in interest; requirements for enforceable agreement; fee must be reasonable.
1. Except as otherwise provided in this section, a debtor or his successor in interest may enter into an agreement with a third party that provides for the third party to assist in the recovery of any balance of the proceeds of a foreclosure sale due to the debtor or his successor in interest pursuant to paragraph (d) of subsection 2 of NRS 40.462.
2. An agreement pursuant to subsection 1:
(1) Be in writing;
(2) Be signed by the debtor or his successor in interest; and
(3) Contain an acknowledgment of the signature of the debtor or his successor in interest by a notary public; and
(b) May not be entered into less than 30 days after the date on which the foreclosure sale was conducted.
3. Any agreement entered into pursuant to this section that does not comply with subsection 2 is void and unenforceable.
4. Any fee charged by a third party for services provided pursuant to an agreement entered into pursuant to this section must be reasonable. A fee that exceeds $2,500, excluding attorney’s fees and costs, is presumed to be unreasonable. A court shall not enforce an obligation to pay any unreasonable fee, but may require a debtor to pay a reasonable fee that is less than the amount set forth in the agreement.
5. A third party may apply to the court for permission to charge a fee that exceeds $2,500. Any third party applying to the court pursuant to this subsection has the burden of establishing to the court that the fee is reasonable.
6. This section does not preclude a debtor or his successor in interest from contesting the reasonableness of any fee set forth in an agreement entered into pursuant to this section.
7. As used in this section:
(a) “Creditor” means a person due an obligation being enforced by a foreclosure sale conducted pursuant to NRS 40.451 to 40.463, inclusive.
(b) “Debtor” means a person, or the successor in interest of a person, who owes an obligation being enforced by a foreclosure sale conducted pursuant to NRS 40.451 to 40.463, inclusive.
(c) “Third party” means a person who is neither the debtor nor the creditor of a particular obligation being enforced by a foreclosure sale conducted pursuant to NRS 40.451 to 40.463, inclusive.
RIGHTS OF GUARANTOR, SURETY OR OBLIGOR IN REAL PROPERTY
NRS 40.465 “Indebtedness” defined. As used in NRS 40.475, 40.485 and 40.495, “indebtedness” means the principal balance of the obligation, together with all accrued and unpaid interest, and those costs, fees, advances and other amounts secured by the mortgage or lien upon real property.
NRS 40.475 Remedy against mortgagor or grantor; assignment of creditor’s rights to guarantor, surety or obligor. Upon full satisfaction by a guarantor, surety or other obligor, other than the mortgagor or grantor of a deed of trust, of the indebtedness secured by a mortgage or lien upon real property, the paying guarantor, surety or other obligor is entitled to enforce every remedy which the creditor then has against the mortgagor or grantor of the mortgage or lien upon real property, and is entitled to an assignment from the creditor of all of the rights which the creditor then has by way of security for the performance of the indebtedness.
NRS 40.485 Interest in proceeds of secured indebtedness upon partial satisfaction of indebtedness. Immediately upon partial satisfaction by a guarantor, surety or other obligor, other than the mortgagor or grantor of a deed of trust, of the indebtedness secured by a mortgage or lien upon real property, the paying guarantor, surety or other obligor automatically, by operation of law and without further action, receives an interest in the proceeds of the indebtedness secured by the mortgage or lien to the extent of the partial satisfaction, subject only to the creditor’s prior right to recover the balance of the indebtedness owed by the mortgagor or grantor.
NRS 40.495 Waiver of rights; separate action to enforce obligation; available defenses.
1. The provisions of NRS 40.475 and 40.485 may be waived by the guarantor, surety or other obligor only after default.
2. Except as otherwise provided in subsection 4, a guarantor, surety or other obligor, other than the mortgagor or grantor of a deed of trust, may waive the provisions of NRS 40.430. If a guarantor, surety or other obligor waives the provisions of NRS 40.430, an action for the enforcement of that person’s obligation to pay, satisfy or purchase all or part of an indebtedness or obligation secured by a mortgage or lien upon real property may be maintained separately and independently from:
(a) An action on the debt;
(b) The exercise of any power of sale;
(c) Any action to foreclose or otherwise enforce a mortgage or lien and the indebtedness or obligations secured thereby; and
(d) Any other proceeding against a mortgagor or grantor of a deed of trust.
3. If the obligee maintains an action to foreclose or otherwise enforce a mortgage or lien and the indebtedness or obligations secured thereby, the guarantor, surety or other obligor may assert any legal or equitable defenses provided pursuant to the provisions of NRS 40.451 to 40.463, inclusive.
4. The provisions of NRS 40.430 may not be waived by a guarantor, surety or other obligor if the mortgage or lien:
(a) Secures an indebtedness for which the principal balance of the obligation was never greater than $500,000;
(b) Secures an indebtedness to a seller of real property for which the obligation was originally extended to the seller for any portion of the purchase price;
(c) Is secured by real property which is used primarily for the production of farm products as of the date the mortgage or lien upon the real property is created; or
(d) Is secured by real property upon which:
(1) The owner maintains his principal residence;
(2) There is not more than one residen